Sunday, January 27, 2013

Lock-off Training in Sport Climbing (IV). A Review of several Methods and an Introduction to Explosive Lock-Offs

Versión en español

As I promised Randy some time ago when responding to his comment -which was the starting point for this series-, we are going to look at some well known methods: statical-dynamical pull-ups and functional isometrics. And, shocker, this already long series will have one more entry (the 4th) that will suggest some specific exercises based on all the information gathered at this point. Afterwards, it will be you who will decide whether they are suitable for your needs, and how to incorporate them into your training.
Ramón Julián at 2009 Arco Rock Master (Italy). Photo: Giulio Malfer. Fuente:
Functional isometrics
This method was proposed in 1962 by Hoffman, and valued by authors like Giorgi et al. (1998), Fleck and Kraemer (2004), or Keogh et al. (1999). At the present there are a number of variations, using it by itself, or as part of a sequence of exercises in other method that we will discuss later and that has several different names: complex, combination training, contrast loading system, or contrast training

In their more basic form, they consist of a dynamic movement like a pull-up, followed by a maximum isometric contraction at the angle of maximum effort (Fleck and Kraemer, 2004).

A functional isometric set-up for bench press: Start the bar at a specific height, and lift it two to three inches against a second set of safety pins. Then hold the position for six to nine seconds. Keep on adding weight until you can't lift it. Just hold the bar firmly against the second set of safety pins for at least six seconds, while maintaining a good lifting posture. Source:

The goal is to put the maximum resistance at the point where the joint has the least mechanical advantage or sticking point (Zatsiorsky and Kraemer, 2006), the underlying logic being that if we gain strength at the most difficult angle, we will experience an improvement along the whole range of movement. For example, there are two such points for the elbow flexors, at 170º and 50º, very similar to those for the triceps.

Keogh et col. (1999) evaluated the effects of functional isometrics on trained subjects using the bench press (6RM that included a 2'' maximum isometric contraction at 160º), and compared it with other classic methods for 6RM, eccentric training and power exercises. The functional isometrics group of participants registered the highest values for the concentric phase when doing 1RM. This is in line with the work of Jackson el al. (1985), Giorgi et al. (1989) and O'Shea and O'Shea (1989), who suggested that this method could be useful for experienced and very strong subjects to improve on 1RM (RM = repetition maximum).
Jesús Beltrán "Brother". Photo: Javipec
On the other hand, in the study by Keogh et al. (1999), the effects of this method over power and endurance were significantly lower than those experienced by the groups that used eccentric, explosive and heavy load (dynamic) methods.

For non-trained subjects the results are more varied. Gentil et col. (2006) found that 10 reps of 5-second maximal isometric leg extensions with a load that provoked muscle failure, induced a greater blood lactate accumulation and time under tension than the more traditional dynamic repetitions. This facts, according to some authors, is associated to an increase in muscle volume and maximum strength.

In my opinion, the key issue here is that, according to the mentioned studies, we should manage to apply, during each repetition, a maximum or near maximum load both in the concentric and the isometric phase. We usually can bear 10-15% more weight with an isometric contraction than with a concentric one; so, when we momentarily lock-off, we should add (don't ask me how right now) that 10-15% load. Later we will propose an exercise that can fullfill those requirements.

Complex training
The above mentioned combination (a.k.a. conjugated, combination, bulgarian, or contrast (Cometti, 2000) training, is based on the postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect that results from mixing light and heavy loads and different types of contraction during the same set or session (isometric and dynamic, for example). Given that the exercises must be executed at the maximum possible speed and that different intensities are used, there will be an increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. This would have in theory a positive effect on neural activation, power and therefore on maximum strength.

Research into complex training has been done from two perspectives: the acute, immediate benefits of performing a heavy strength exercise as a warm-up prior to a maximal power or speed performance (such as vertical jump test) and the long-term training adaptations that can be developed from a periodized complex training program.
Regarding acute effects in Some studies have evaluated how combination training affects performance of the upper limb in power exercises like throws; they suggest that it can be as, but no more, effective than other "traditional" methods for children, women and people with a low training level (Ebben, 2000).

Nonetheless, as was the case with the previous method, it can be more beneficial for men, and for those with a higher level of training (Ebben and Watts, 1998), possibly due to their higher percentage of fast twitch fibers (Hamada et al., 2000), and/or their superior maximum strength (Ebben, 2002).
French, Kraemer and Cook (2003) did a study with fourteen track and field athletes, and data indicate that performing a sequence of repeated maximal isometric knee extensions (3 repetitions of 3 seconds)  prior to (30 minutes) selected dynamic exercise (0.25 seconds) may have favorable effects on performance beyond standards achieved without prior heavy loading. Lastly, it is interesting to note that the PAP ergogenic stimulus has been found to last between two-to-thirty minutes (Chiu, Fry, Weiss, et al. 2003; Rixon, Lamont, Bemden, 2007)
Luis Muñoz. Photo: Javipec

There's a class of combination trainings popular among climbers, the so called iso-dynamic by Verjoshansky (1986), or static-dynamic by Cometti (2000). Depending on the desired effects, they can also be called iso-miometric and iso-ballistic. Now, the most used variant among european climbers is the one described by Cometti, that in our case consists of mixing pull-ups and lock-offs like this:
An explosive pull-up is done up to certain angle, then a lock-off is maintained for certain amount of time, and finally the pulling movement is finished at high speed. The author suggests the use of 2-second lock-offs, and loads of about 60% of maximum concentric strength for the pull-ups. In this video there's an example (min 3:25 to 3:50).

I couldn't find any studies that tested the effects of this exercise on pull-up maximum strength and power endurance, on power when doing more specific exercises like campus board, or general climbing performance.
In theory, given the similarity to the pulling-locking gesture so common in climbing, it coul be of some interest. But it remains to be seen what for and how to use it.

Several facts must be taken into account before answering:
Obviously, the deceleration that occurs when we stop pulling and lock, clashes with the explosive pulling force that we were generating the moment before.
Lega on "Supertitte", Castillo de Bayuela (Toledo, Spain). Photo: Carles de Diego. Source:
Secondly, if we have to resume the interrupted movement in an explosive fashion, we will be subject to an effect observed by Tihanyi et col. (1989) and Van Cutsem and Duchauteu (2005): the act of performing an isometric contraction reduces the amount of force that can be immediately be applied per unit of time (RFD = rate of force development) in a subsequent concentric contraction. The explosive force will be lower than if we hadn't previously done an isometric contraction.
Mery on "Valle de Rosas", 8a+, Cuenca (Spain). Photo: javipec
Thirdly, regarding the development of locking-off strength, and lacking any relevant literature in this matter, it stands to reason that if we want to improve our maximum or explosive locking strength it will be more effective to work it by itself instead of mixing it with pull-ups. The reason is that the control of the load gets more difficult, because both types of contraction require different absolute loads and exertion durations.

So, especially for developing maximum strength (using more than 1RM), power, and power-endurance, the dynamic methods seem more effective when it comes to pulling; conversely, the static methods will be more suitable for maximum and explosive locking strength and locking power-endurance.
Nevertheless, there is an area where this method can be of help, and that is to improve our ability for swiftly and effectively transitioning from a dynamic contraction (pulling) to a static one (locking-off) and vice versa. Ability that, as we already know, is constantly demanded in our sport.
Oscar Martinez on "La Soucoupe", 7C+, Chironico (Switzerland). Photo: Joseba Saiz. Fuente: Oscar facebook profile
Training Objectives for Improving the Locking-off Ability
Summing up, with the intention of setting priorities and choosing a training methodology for our planning, we could determine different training goals, or different effects to have in sight related to lock-off ability:
  • Maximum locking strength
  • Explosive locking strength
  • Fast and effective transition form pulling to locking-off and vice versa
  • Power-endurance specific to the pulling-locking gesture
We have already gone over the two last, and the first is easy to figure out but, what about maximum locking strength? Is it not an oxymoron to put 'explosive' and 'static' in the same sentence? What can this possibly mean?
This explosive isometric exercise consists of trying to push the bar against the stoppers, or pulling it, in an explosive way. Source:
Explosive and maximum isometrics: fast and slow lock-offs
As stated by Verkhoshansky and Siff (2000) it would be very reductionist and wrong to define isometric contraction symply as one where a static muscle action takes place for certain amount of time. If we look at a graph showing how the force applied against an unmovable resistance until fatigue varies with time, we will see what is called the force-time (f-t) curve. The important word here is 'curve' and has several phases:

1- Force-generation or development phase: The muscle builds up tension until the Peak Maximum Force (PMF) is reached. It's been shown that this maximum isometric force takes at least 0,8 to 1 second.

Another remarkable aspect of this phase is that there is a moment, when the f-t curve is steepest, that is, the ratio between the force produced and the time to reach it is at its best. Such is the value for the maximum explosive force, the peak of force that has been achieved in the shortest possible time. This is around 30% of the PMF (max RFD in the graph below). Stone, Stone and Sands (2003) call "starting strength" the one that is applied during the first 30ms, and that determines the speed of the movement when we talk about a dynamic contraction. Do any of these figures remind you of the previous chapter?
Sample f-t curve. "Starting strength" is the force produced at 30ms; "explosive strength" is max RFD, which is the moment of highest explosive strength, and takes place at about 30% of PMF. "maximum strenght" or peak force (PF) is the greatest force produced under a given set of conditions. (Stone, Stone and Sands, 2007)
2- Steady State phase: Holding the maximum force. Lasts for about 3-6 seconds.

3- Final or Force-decay phase: Reduction in force due to fatigue.

According to this, we find fast or explosive isometric contractions where the generation-force phase is short, and the force generated per unit of time (RFD or explosive force) is very high; the downside is that there is no time to reach our maximum strength (PMF). Reversely, in a slow or maximum isometric the explosive component is much lower, but we can reach our peak force. Using one or the other is not only a question of what method we use to solve a movement; many variables take part, like personal climbing style, wall angle, hold size, finger strength (if we can barely grab a hold, we don't have time to gather a lot of maximum pulling or locking strength), and even muscle composition and training habits.
RFD curve for fast or explosive isometrics versus slow or maximum isometrics
Nacho Sanchez on Memento, 8C, Silvretta (Switzerland). Photo: Rebeca Morillo. Source: Nacho's blog
And now, if you have a lot of general climbing experience (more than 3 years), and upper body strength training experience (more than 3 years), a high pulling force (15-20 unweighted pull-ups, more than five with 5kg added weight); if you don't have any injuries or other limiting factors in your elbows; if you are convinced that, after absorbing all this information, it can help you countering some of your weaknesses, then I'll show you some exercises.
But that, will be the topic of the next entry in the series.

Lock-off Training in Sport Climbing (I). Does Static (lock-offs) Training have any Effect over Dynamic (pull-ups) Performance?
 Lock-off Training in Sport Climbing (II) Does our locking-off ability have any influence on our performance? Is it so important to train it?
Lock-off Training in Sport Climbing (III) Do you really lock-off?

  • Cometti, G. (2000): Los métodos modernos de musculación. Paidotribo.
  • Chiu, L.Z., Fry, A.C., Weiss, L.W., Schilling, B.K., Brown, L.E., & Smith, S.L. (2003). Postactivation potentiation response in athletic and recreationally trained individuals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 17(4), 671-677.
  • Ebben, W. P., Watts, P. B., Jensen, R. L. and Blackard, D. O. (2000): EMG and kinetic analysis of complex training exercise variables. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 14(4), 451-456.
  • Ebben, W. P. (2002): Complex training: A brief review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 1, 42-46
  • Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ (1997). Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ (2004): Designing Resistance Training Programs, ed 2. Designing Resistance Training Programs. Human Kinetics Publishers 
  • French, DN, Kraemer, J, Cooke CB (2003) Changes in Dynamic Exercise Performance Following a Sequence of Preconditioning Isometric Muscle Actions. Journal in Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(4), 678-685
  • Gentil, P., Oliveira, E., and Bottaro, M (2006): Time under Tension and Blood Lactate Response during Four Different Resistance Training Methods. Journal of Physiological Anthropology; 25(5): 339–344
  • Giorgi A., Wilson GJ, Weatherby RP (1998) Functional isometric training: its effects on the development of muscular function and the endocrine system over an 8- week training period. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 12, 18-25
  • González Badillo JJ and Gorostiaga Ayestarán E. (1995) Fundamentos del entrenamiento de la fuerza. Aplicación al alto rendimiento deportivo. Zaragoza: INDE; 1995.
  • Gonzalez Badillo and Ribas, J (1996): Fundamentos del entrenamiento de la fuerza. Inde
  • González-Badillo, JJ, and Izquierdo, M. (2008): Evaluación de la fuerza en el control del entrenamiento y el rendimiento deportivo. In Izquierdo, M. (editor); Biomecánica y Bases Neuromusculares de la Actividad Física y el Deporte. Panamericana
  • Hamada, T., Sale, D.G., MacDougall, J.D., and Tarnopolsky, M.A. (2000): Postactivation potentiation, fiber type, and twitch contraction time in human knee extensor muscles. J Appl Physiol, 88: 2131–2137 
  • Jackson, A.; Jackson, T., Hnatek, J., and West, J. (1985): Strength development: Using functional isometrics in an isotonic strength training program. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 56:234–237.
  • Keogh, J.W.L., Wilson, G.J., and Weatherby, R.P. (1999): A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Different Resistance Training Techniques in the Bench Press. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13(3), 247–258
  • O’Shea, K.L., and O’Shea, J.P. (1989):  Functional isometric weight training: Its effects on dynamic and static strength.J. Appl. Sport Sci. Res.3(2):30–33
  • Rixon, K.P., Lamont, H.S., and Bemden, M.G. (2007). Influence of type of muscle contraction, gender, and lifting experience on postactivation potentiation performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(2), 500-505.
  • Tihanyi J, Bosco C, Fekete G, and Apor G (1989) The effect of muscle structure and training conditions on the rate of torque development. Review of the Hungarian University of Physical Education, Budapest, 185-198
  • Zatsiorsky VM, and Kraemer WJ (2004) Science and Practice of Strength Training-2nd edition. Human Kinetics
  • Van Cutsem, M., and Duchateau, J. (2005). Preceding muscle activity influences motor unit discharge and rate of torque development during ballistic contractions in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 562(2), 635-644.
  • Verkhoshansky, Y., and Siff, M. C. (2004). Superentrenamiento.Madrid. Paidotribo.

Tuesday, January 8, 2013

Redpoint Anxiety in Climbing: What stresses you out? (I)

Versión en español (Original Spanish published in 18 June 2009)

A high and consistent execution level begins with the discovery of those factors and conditions that allow for a higher performance, or that, conversely, lead to an efficacy below our expectations (Harris, D. in Williams, 1991).

Luckily, every problem carries its own solution within.

Then, it’s the case that when we recognize what stimuli and circumstances are more stressing to us, and which emotional states and physical sensations are associated to them; and that if we learn how to reinterpret, get used or even ignore all of them, we’ll be able to tune our anxiety level and reach optimum concentration.

Don’t forget that one of the undesired effects of anxiety is a reduced ability to focus on the task (Nideffer, 1996), because it narrows our attention field (Landers, Wang & Courtet, 1985).
Concentration is in limited supply, and we can’t see the whole picture if we are devoting our attention to a reduced set of aspects.

- If we just think: “oops, almost at the crux… and I’m already pumped…”, while just looking to that dreaded hold, we won’t be preparing ourselves for the movements that precede it, or we’ll fail to give ourselves the proper self-instructions that allow us to recall the correct hand or foot positions and the order of execution, for example. 
- If all that you worry about is in the lines of: “this is my last try of the season…”, you will leave little room to deciding what your strategy will be during the actual climb… 
- During a competition your obsession is “I must send it or I won’t make the cut to the finals”: then your attention will be towards your own thoughts (internal attention) and your visual field (external attention) will be impaired, causing you to miss that hold round the arête… 

- Before starting the actual climb, we can be so nervous that we even forget to refill our chalk bag, or to carry enough quickdraws…
Following the works of Anshel & Weinberg (1995), Buceta (1985), Davis & Cox (2002), Dosil & Caracuel (2003) and Weinberg & Gould (1996), and with the help of my own personal and sports experience, we are going to describe the main sources of stress (stressor stimuli) in our sport, while advancing some reinterpretation strategies for them

Main Sources of Stress

Events that in previous occasions ended in success, or that, alternatively, were unpleasant due to a low self-efficacy or a bad result, can remain in our memory and promote anxiety later, while competing or working a project.

I’m talking here about a situation like this: we have just fallen higher than ever in our last try, and now we want to do it better yet; or we fear that our second try won’t be as good as our nearly successful onsight attempt. Or we have to face that crimp where we got injured last time, or the fear of falling almost at the top… again. It also can happen that we just don’t want to relive the trauma of falling at the crux, or to endure the long lasting agony of an ultra-long endurance route. In these cases we either feel the obligation of doing better, or we anticipate a negative outcome, making ourselves tense before the fact.
In these cases I always say that it would be ideal to ‘reset’ ourselves, because that is precisely what we should do: try to avoid comparing with our past self and start anew, like it was the first time we were doing it.
This is when we think we must succeed, or we elaborate about the consequences of failing to, or that it is very difficult for us to send a route because of its grade or its style; in general, things that haven’t happened yet and we believe or fear are going to happen…

Usually, too high or too low expectations can result in anxiety. So beware what you think: “I must do it, I have to link it”, “If I fall now, it’s three months until I can come back”, or “If I don’t make the top three, I won’t be chosen for the national team”

Fear of the unknown is likely to cause stress. That’s why some people don’t like to try onsight, and when they do, they are tense because they don’t know the holds and the methods for each sequence. In this situation, they should try to change their approach to uncertainty, and look at it as an enjoyable challenge; perhaps they should start practicing this style with easier routes at first, and progress to harder ones as they develop their tolerance to risky decisions and their ability to improvise.
Yuji Hirayama onsighting White Zombie. Photo: Source:
Uncertainty is linked to the subjective likelihood of success, as a result of the confrontation between perceived difficulty and perceived ability (Martens, Vealey & Burton, 1990). In this context, the most anxiety is felt when success and failure are equally probable. And, by the contrary, there’s less stress if one of the possible outcomes is perceived as much more probable. That’s how we can now understand that the least nervous ones are the ones who know they’re going to do well (hence the importance of building self-confidence as a tool to curb anxiety), or the ones who are sure they are going to fall. This also explains some instances of people who are very nervous while trying a route, and then unexpectedly send it while climbing “just to clean it”, or “just for training, because I’m already tired”…

Reinterpretation proposals

When confronted by these four sources of stress, we have to realize that there are no psychics; we can’t be sure of what’s going to happen tomorrow, so let’s not make predictions. The past is already fixed, so we just have the present. We do have control over the here and now. Focus on it! Let’s center our attention on the present.

We have to think just about the climb we are performing or about to perform, one movement at a time; look at the next hold, place the foot on the selected spot, clip, chalk… fill with positive or instructional thoughts the space that otherwise would be occupied by negative ones.
Everything that keeps us from thinking about climbing in this precise moment will be detrimental to our self-confidence.
In those moments I always think: “Who knows? You never know… I’ll stick to my climb, my holds and see what happens.”
Do these sources of anxiety ring a bell? If not, wait for the next post where I will describe some more, I don’t want to tire you more for now…

  • Anshel, M.H. & Weinberg, R.S. (1995). Sources of acute stress in American and Australian baseball referees. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7, 11-22
  • Buceta, J. M. (1985). Some guidelines for the prevention of excessive stress in athletes. International journal of sport psychology.
  • Davis, J. E., & Cox, R. H. (2002). Interpreting direction of anxiety within Hanin's individual zone of optimal functioning. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(1), 43-52.
  • Dosil, J., & Caracuel, J. C. (2003). Psicología aplicada al deporte. Ciencias de la actividad física y del deporte. Madrid. Síntesis.
  • Landers, D. M., Wang, M. Q., & Courtet, P. (1985). Peripheral narrowing among experienced and inexperienced rifle shooters under low-and high-stress conditions. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 56(2), 122-130.
  • Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Human kinetics.
  • Nideffer, R. M. (1991). Entrenamiento para el control de la atención y la concentración. En J. M. Williams (Ed.), Psicología aplicada al deporte. Madrid. Biblioteca Nueva.
  • Williams, J (1991). Psicología Aplicada al Deporte. Madrid. Biblioteca Nueva


Thursday, January 3, 2013

Competitive Anxiety in Climbing: Interpreting your "Redpoint Anxiety"

Versión en español (Original Spanish published in 18 June 2009)

Anxiety is a negative emotional state that involves feelings of nervousness, worry, and foreboding which are related to the activation level of the body. It comprises a thought component (for example, self-doubts about a hard project, an onsight try or a competition) called cognitive anxiety, and a physiological component called somatic anxiety, that is related to the perceived physical activity (Weinberg & Gould, 1996).

This means that in the face of a maximum grade climb or a competition, we can experience:
- increased perspiration, heart rate or body rigidity, etc., that are signs of somatic anxiety;
- and/or feelings of worry, fear, insecurity, etc., signs of cognitive anxiety.

Pablo Barbero. Avilés 2005. Photo: David Munilla
How can we adjust the excess of anxiety?
There are techniques like progressive muscle relaxation, control of respiration, yoga, etc., that can help us with high somatic anxiety.
Regarding the excess of cognitive anxiety, among other methods that we will discuss later on, there’s the possibility of interpret those stimuli in a different way.
And this is key, because it is through this interpretation that we can start to minimize that uncomfortably high anxiety. Keep in mind that stress, and by extension anxiety, is the result of our personal interpretation of reality.
It’s not what we experience, but how we experience it. It’s not what we see, but how we see it.
This approach of reinterpreting your ‘redpoint anxiety’ is supported by catastrophe theory (Hardy, 1990) and reversal theory (Kerr, 1985), that suggest that the interaction between the physical activation levels and the thoughts associated to them is more important than their absolute levels (Weinberg & Gould, 1996).

There are two different perceptions of physiological activation
Martens (1987) makes the following distinction:
1- Positive and facilitating: The activation feelings are perceived as pleasant and motivating. For example “I can hear my heart beat, my muscles are tightening, I’m going to do it, how I like this pressure level”, or “Ok, I can feel my heart beating and I’m a bit nervous but I know this activation is normal and good, because it will help me focusing, and will allow me to push even harder and give a good fight. This is what this activation is useful for and it will help me link the route. Let’s go!”.

Still talking about this perception, we can also choose an approach that we will call neutral, where we ignore the negative thoughts and stimuli. We could think along these lines: “Well, now I’m nervous and insecure, but I know that once I begin climbing all of that will vanish and I’ll perform all right. A muerte!”. Or “yes, I’m nervous but this is normal, it’s a hard route and I want very badly to do it”.

2- Negative or debilitating: The athlete puts the emphasis on the negative consequences of this tension: “look how nervous I am, I’m shaking… I’ll mess everything  up and I’m going to fall, I will miss the dyno to that narrow pocket… how unpleasant, I want this to end right now”. If we look at it, we realize that this way of approaching the situation manages to make us ‘nervous for feeling nervous’, and
this is a showstopper, because you enter a loop that is very difficult to escape from.
However, if we are not aware that we are suffering from anxiety, we can’t try to adjust it, that’s obvious.

We can follow these steps in order to control our activation:
  1.  Learn to recognize it, and even identify which stimuli o situations make us more nervous, so that we can prevent them or refocus them (this will be the topic of a later post),
  2. After that, adjust the interpretation of that anxiety as we discussed in this blog post;
  3. Lastly, develop an appropriate coping strategy; this will be explained in the last posts of this series.
So, are you aware of your anxiety and how it influences your performance? And… what interpretation will you choose?

  • Hardy, L. (1990). A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. In J.G. Jones & L. Hardy (Eds.). Stress and performance in sport. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
  • Kerr, J. H. (1985). The experience of arousal: A new basis for studying arousal effects in sport. Journal of sports sciences, 3(3), 169-179.
  • Martens, R. (1987). Coaches guide to sport psychology. Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics.
  • Weinberg, R. S. & Gould, D. (1996). Fundamentos de Psicología del deporte y el ejercicio físico. Barcelona: Ariel Psicología.

Competitive Anxiety in Climbing: "Redpoint Anxiety"